What is Vitamin D?
Vitamins are elements that the human body cannot produce; thus, they must be obtained via food.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble steroids that are responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium and many other biological effects. In human beings, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).
The major natural source of the vitamin is the synthesis of Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by your body in the lower layers of the epidermis of the skin via a chemical reaction that is caused by sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Additionally, cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be taken from the diet and supplements.
Vitamin D is necessary for a variety of reasons, one of which is bone and tooth health. Additionally, it may provide protection against a variety of illnesses and ailments, including type 1 diabetes.
Vitamin D, despite its name, is a prohormone, or precursor to a hormone.
In this article, I will discuss the advantages of vitamin D, the consequences of its inadequate consumption, and how to increase its intake.
What are The Uses and Health Benefits of Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is involved in a variety of processes throughout the body. It is beneficial for the following:
- Boosting bone and tooth health while promoting the health of the immunological, neurological, and brain systems
- Insulin levels and assisting in the control of diabetes
- Improving lung and cardiovascular health by modulating the expression of cancer-related genes
Continue reading for more information on 11 uses and health benefits of vitamin D:
1) Benefits of Vitamin D for Bone Health
Vitamin D is necessary for calcium management and blood phosphorus maintenance (1). These components are necessary for bone health.
This vitamin is required to activate and absorb calcium in the intestines and to recover calcium that would otherwise be excreted by the kidneys.
Vitamin D deficit in children may result in rickets, a condition that results in severe bowlegs owing to bone weakening.
Similarly, osteomalacia, or bone softening, occurs in adults with vitamin D insufficiency. Osteomalacia is a condition that causes low bone density and muscle weakness.
Its insufficiency may also manifest as osteoporosis, which affects about 53 million individuals in the United States.
2) Vitamin D Can Lessen the Chance of Catching the Flu
According to a 2018 review of current evidence, certain investigations had shown that vitamin D has antiviral properties (2).
The scientists did, however, examine additional trials in which vitamin D had no influence on flu or influenza risk.
Thus, further study is required to prove vitamin D’s preventive impact against influenza.
3) It Can Improve Infants’ Health
According to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), data suggests a link between insufficient vitamin D consumption and a higher risk of allergy sensitization (4).
Allergy-related hospitalizations and epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions among children who reside near the Equator are lower than among those who live farther north or to the west. Additionally, they are less likely to be allergic to peanuts.
Also, this vitamin may increase the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. This benefit makes it very useful in people with steroid-resistant asthma as supportive therapy (5).
4) Vitamin D Benefits for Pregnant Ladies
According to a 2019 analysis, pregnant ladies who are vitamin D deficient may be at an increased risk of getting preeclampsia as well as delivering birth prematurely (6).
Deficiency of this vitamin is also associated with gestational diabetes as well as bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women, according to doctors.
It’s also worth noting that a 2013 study found that high vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy were connected with a higher risk of food allergy in your kid’s first two years of life (7).
5) It Can be Effective for Underactive Parathyroid Gland (Hypoparathyroidism)
Vitamin D supplements, such as dihydrotachysterol, ergocalciferol, or calcitriol, are helpful in increasing calcium blood levels in individuals with low parathyroid hormone levels.
6) Vitamin D May Decrease the Chances of Heart Disease
Lower levels of vitamin D have been linked to a higher risk of heart diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, and stroke. But it’s uncertain whether its deficiency contributes to heart disease or just specifies poor health when you have a chronic condition (8).
Also, in certain persons, oral vitamin D supplementation may help minimize their chance of heart failure. However, it did not seem to benefit those already suffering from heart failure.
7) It May Support Immune Health
People who have lower vitamin D levels may be at higher risk of infections and autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (9).
8) Vitamin D May Control Mood & Lower Depression
Research has revealed that vitamin D may have a key role in controlling mood and reducing the risk of depression.
An analysis conducted on 7,534 people showed that vitamin D supplementation can reduce negative emotions. Its supplementation may help people with the major depressive disorder who also have a vitamin D deficiency (10).
Another study showed low levels of vitamin D (hypovitaminosis D) as a risk factor for worse symptom severity, depression, and anxiety in fibromyalgia (FM) patients (11).
9) It Can Prevent Respiratory Infections
Vitamin D supplementation aids in the prevention of respiratory infections in youngsters. However, its supplementation during pregnancy does not seem to lessen the incidence of these illnesses in newborns. Additionally, it does not aid in the prevention of infections in adults.
10) Vitamin D Benefits for Weight Loss
People having higher body weights have an increased chance of low levels of vitamin D (12).
In one study, it was found that obese people who received vitamin D supplements in addition to following a weight loss diet plan lost more weight and fat mass than those who only followed the weight loss diet plan (12).
Another study found that those overweight or obese women with low calcium levels, who took a daily dose of vitamin D and calcium supplements, were more successful in shedding pounds than those who took a placebo supplement. The scientists suggest that this was due to an “appetite-suppressing effect” of the extra vitamin D and calcium (13).
11) Vitamin D Benefits For Oral Health
Vitamin D helps your body in calcium absorption; thus it plays an important role in supporting oral health, lowering the risk of gum disease and tooth decay.
According to a 2011 review in The Journal of the Tennessee Dental Association, an emerging hypothesis is that vitamin D may be beneficial for oral health, due to its effect on bone metabolism and its capacity to function as an anti-inflammatory agent and stimulate the production of anti-microbial peptides (14).
Also, oral calcium, as well as vitamin D3 supplementation, seems to reduce tooth loss in the elderly.
What are the Side Effects of Too Much of Vitamin D? (or Side Effects of Vitamin D Toxicity)?
Although vitamin D toxicity is rare, it may occur, particularly under the following circumstances:
- unintentional overdose
- prescription mistakes
- its supplementation at excessive doses
7 Side Effects of Vitamin D Toxicity are as under:
1) Its Toxicity May Cause Increased Blood Levels Of Vitamin D
Vitamin D toxicity is also known as hypervitaminosis D or vitamin D intoxication.
This vitamin must surpass 100 nanograms (ng) per milliliter (mL) in order to reach hazardous or harmful amounts in the body.
Even when supplementing with high doses of vitamin D, it is rare that a healthy person’s blood vitamin D levels would approach excessive or dangerous levels.
The majority of vitamin D toxicity instances are the result of prescription mistakes and improper supplement doses.
According to a case reported in 2020, vitamin D toxicity occurred in a 73-year old male after consuming 10,000 IU of this vitamin every day for several years (19).
In another 2020 case report, a 56-year-old lady was hospitalized for muscular weakness, nausea, and vomiting after taking an average of 130,000 IU of vitamin D per day for 20 months with the expectation of relieving multiple sclerosis symptoms. Her vitamin D levels were found to be 265 ng/ml (20).
Notably, 130,000 IU is 32 times more than the typically suggested daily maximum limit of 4,000 IU.
While toxicity is rare if daily vitamin D consumption is kept below 10,000 IU, and its excessive supplementation is avoided, experts suggest that adults with average vitamin D levels should not exceed 4,000 IU of this vitamin per day (21).
Friends, here you should note one thing, those who are vitamin D deficient or at risk of deficiency often need substantially larger doses than the existing Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of 4,000 IU each day to achieve and maintain adequate vitamin D levels.
However, you should consult a doctor about the appropriate dose for you. This will assist you in avoiding any inadvertent or harmful dosing.
2) Toxicity Of Vitamin D May Cause Elevated Calcium Levels in the Blood
One of the most critical functions of vitamin D is that it aids in the absorption of calcium from the diet.
However, if you consume an excessive amount of this vitamin, your blood calcium levels may rise to levels that induce unpleasant and even deadly symptoms.
Vitamin D toxicity manifests predominantly as hypercalcemia (i.e. abnormally high blood calcium levels) (22).
Symptoms of Hypercalcemia are:
- Digestive issues such as nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and constipation
- Frequent urination
- Loss of appetite
- Hypertension and cardiac abnormalities
- Confusion, and hallucinations,
- Renal stones, kidney damage, and even kidney failure
Hypercalcemia often arises as a result of the prolonged consumption of large doses of vitamin D.
Normal calcium levels in the blood should be between 8.5 and 10.8 mg/dL.
Hypercalcemia is a life-threatening condition that needs prompt medical intervention. For instance, a 2015 case study showed that an elderly man suffering from dementia who got 50,000 IU of vitamin D daily for six months was hospitalized frequently for symptoms associated with elevated calcium levels (23).
In addition to the symptoms associated with hypercalcemia, the woman who took an average of 130,000 IU of vitamin D per day for 20 months was hospitalized in the 2020 case report (20).
These symptoms included vomiting, nausea, weakening of the muscles, and renal damage. Her calcium level in the blood was 12.9 mg/dl (20).
3) Toxicity of Vitamin D May Cause Altered Mental State
In individuals with vitamin D toxicity, hypercalcemia may result in an impaired mental state.
Vitamin D toxicity-induced hypercalcemia is often associated with symptoms such as sadness, confusion, and psychosis. Coma has been observed in severe circumstances (24).
According to a case report from 2021, a 64-year-old man consumed 200,000 IU of vitamin D per day by mistake after misinterpreting medical directions. He had changed mental state and other hypercalcemia-related grave symptoms.
For the first ten days of his hospital stay, he remained confused and agitated, but his symptoms slowly resolved as his calcium levels decreased. It took around Eighteen days for his calcium levels to recover to normal (25).
4) Vitamin D Toxicity May Cause Digestive Issues
Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium in your body can lead to several digestive issues. These side effects are mainly due to excessive calcium levels in the blood; some of these side effects are (26):
- poor appetite
However, the exact same symptoms may not be present in all people with hypercalcemia.
In one case study of two brothers, one 12-year old boy developed constipation, vomiting, and stomach pain after taking improperly labeled vitamin D supplements, whereas his brother who was receiving the same treatment, experienced elevated blood levels without any other symptoms (27).
In another study, an 18-month-old boy who was given 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 for 3 months developed stomach pain, diarrhea, and other symptoms. These symptoms were resolved progressively when the child stopped taking the supplements (28).
5) Vitamin D toxicity May Cause Harm to kidneys
According to studies, vitamin D toxicity can increase the risk of kidney diseases and can even result in kidney failure in some cases. People with pre-existing kidney ailments must consult a doctor before consuming supplements of this vitamin.
This is due to the reason that having excessive vitamin D in the body can cause high levels of calcium, which in turn, can cause water loss through too much urination, and calcification of the kidneys (29).
Hypercalcemia can also lead to decreased kidney function by causing constriction of blood vessels of the kidneys (29).
Here one important thing is that deficiency of vitamin D can also harm the kidneys and lead to severe complications in patients with kidney disease. Thus, maintaining optimal levels of this vitamin in the blood is critical (30, 31).
6) Its Toxicity May Cause Brittle Bones and Bone Pain
When there is a high amount of calcium circulating freely in the bloodstream, then your body may not have sufficient hormones to bind the mineral to the bones effectually.
Toxicity of vitamin D can cause hypercalcemia and thus subsequent problems with the bones.
Some of these symptoms are:
- severe back or joint pain
- aching or painful bones
- severely stooped posture
- an increased rate of falling
- loss of height or length of limb
- bones, that are prone to fracture or break
7) Toxicity of Vitamin D May Cause Lung Damage
When high levels of phosphate and calcium in the blood bind to form crystals, these tend to deposit in soft tissues especially soft-tissue organs that act as filters, like lungs.
If many of these calcium salt deposits are present in the lungs then they can damage the organ’s function.
Some of the resulting lung damage signs are:
- chest pain
- trouble breathing
What are the Vitamin D Rich Foods or Vitamin D Food Sources?
There are several different and healthy vitamin d foods, ranging from naturally occurring to supplements.
Let’s know about the top natural sources of vitamin d:
A regular 30-minute walk in the warm sun can give you plenty of vitamin D for the whole day, which is quite difficult to get otherwise (32). Here is one thing you should note it should be direct contact, not the sunrays that are diffused through the glasses on your windows.
It happens pretty quickly when the sun’s rays hit your skin. These rays stimulate vitamin D production in your body. This means more exposure to the sun, the more is the production of this vitamin.
To increase your vitamin D levels while out in the sun, you should expose at least your face, hands, and arms. This is due to the reason; to produce this vitamin your skin must not be covered.
People with dark skin, like those of African, African-Caribbean, or south Asian origin, will require staying longer in the sun to produce the same amount of vitamin D as someone with lighter skin.
If you’re sitting indoors by a sunny window then your body can’t make vitamin D because ultraviolet B rays which your body needs to make this vitamin, can’t pass through the glass.
Following are the Vitamin D Rich Foods or Vitamin D Food Sources:
Salmon is a well-known fatty fish that is an excellent source of vitamin D.
According to the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Composition Database, a 100-gram portion of farmed Atlantic salmon provides you 526 IU of vitamin D or 66 percent of the recommended daily value (DV) (33).
The difference between farmed and wild salmon may be significant.
Wild-caught salmon has an average of 988 IU of vitamin D per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving, or 124 percent of the daily value. According to other research, wild salmon has considerably greater quantities — up to 1,300 IU per serving (34, 35).
Farmed salmon, on the other hand, has just 25% of that quantity. Nonetheless, one serving of farmed salmon contains around 250 IU of vitamin D or 32% of the daily value (34).
2) Sardines and Herring
Herring is a fish that is consumed worldwide. It is available raw, smoked, tinned, and pickled.
This little fish is also an excellent source of vitamin D.
Fresh Atlantic herring has 216 IU per 100-gram serving which is 27% of the daily value (36). If fresh fish isn’t your thing, pickled herring provides 112 IU of this vitamin per 100-gram of serving, or 14% of the daily value.
However, pickled herring carries a high salt content, which some individuals can take in excess (37).
Sardines in cans are also a rich source of vitamin D, as one can (3.8 ounces) provides you 177 IU or 22% of the daily value (38).
3) Cod Liver Oil
Cod liver oil is a well-known dietary supplement. If you dislike fish, supplementing with cod liver oil may be necessary to receive certain nutrients that are not accessible from other sources.
Cod liver oil is also an excellent source of vitamin A, providing 150 percent of the daily value in only one teaspoon (4.9 ml). Vitamin A, on the other hand, maybe harmful in large doses. Hence, you should be careful while taking cod liver oil and not consume it in large amounts.
Additionally, cod liver oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which many individuals need.
4) Egg Yolks
Individuals who do not consume fish should be aware that it is not the sole supply of vitamin D. Whole eggs can be another excellent source, as well as a nutrient-dense food.
While the white of an egg has the majority of the protein, the yolk contains the majority of the fat, vitamins, as well as minerals.
An average egg yolk provides 37 IU of vitamin D or 5% of the recommended daily value (43).
Vitamin D levels in egg yolks are dependent on sun exposure and vitamin D present in the chicken feed. When fed the same diet, pasture-raised chickens that are allowed to wander outdoors in the sunshine laid eggs with 3–4 times the amount of vitamin D (44).
Additionally, eggs from chickens that are fed on vitamin D fortified feed may contain up to 6,000 international units (IU) of this vitamin per yolk. That is a staggering sevenfold the DV (45).
Choosing eggs from outside-raised chickens or eggs labeled as vitamin D fortified may be an excellent method to achieve your daily needs.
5) Canned Tuna
Numerous individuals like canned tuna due to its taste and ease of storing.
Additionally, it is often less expensive than purchasing fresh fish.
A 100-gram portion of canned light tuna contains up to 268 IU of vitamin D, which is 34% of the daily value. Additionally, it contains vitamin K as well as niacin (46).
Regrettably, canned tuna includes methylmercury, a poisonous substance present in a variety of fish. It may create major health concerns if it accumulates in your body (47).
Certain species of fish, on the other hand, represent a lower danger than others. For example, light tuna is often a better option than white tuna; and up to 170 grams per week is regarded safe (48).
Except for fortified meals, mushrooms are the only excellent source of vitamin D that is not derived from animals.
Mushrooms, like humans, can produce this vitamin when exposed to ultraviolet light (49).
Mushrooms, on the other hand, create vitamin D2, whereas mammals produce vitamin D3. While vitamin D2 is excellent in increasing vitamin D levels in the blood, it is not as efficient as vitamin D3 (51, 52).
Wild mushrooms, on the other hand, are a wonderful source of vitamin D2. Indeed, some types contain up to 2,300 IU per 100 g of serving – almost three times the daily value (DV) (50).
On the other hand, mushrooms that are produced commercially are often grown in darkness and contain relatively little D2.
Certain brands, on the other hand, are treated with ultraviolet radiation (UV light). These mushrooms can give you 130–450 international units (IU) of vitamin D2 per 100 grams (50).
7) Fortified Food Sources Of Vitamin D
There are only a few natural sources of vitamin D, particularly for vegetarians and those who dislike seafood. You can also use food sources that are fortified with this vitamin.
a) Soy Milk
Due to the fact that vitamin D is virtually solely found in animal sources, vegetarians, as well as vegans, are at an increased risk of not obtaining enough.
As a result, plant-based milk alternatives such as soy milk are often enriched with this vitamin as well as other nutrients present in cow’s milk. Typically, it’s one cup (about 237 ml) provides you 107–117 IU of vitamin D, or 13–15 percent of the daily requirement (53, 54).
b) Cow’s Milk
Cow’s milk is the most often consumed form of milk and is a natural source of numerous nutrients like phosphorus, calcium, etc. (55).
Vitamin D is added to cow’s milk in various regions of the world. It typically contains around 115–130 IU per cup (237 ml), which is approximately 15%–22% of the DV (56).
c) Cereals And Oats
Vitamin D is also added to instant oatmeal and some cereals.
Despite the fact that these fortified cereals, as well as oatmeal, give you a lower amount of vitamin D than natural sources but these may be useful sources to increase your vitamin D intake.
d) Orange Juice
As a result, several nations add vitamin D and other minerals, such as calcium, to orange juice.
With one cup (237 mL) of fortified orange juice for breakfast, you may get up to 100 IU of vitamin D, or 12% of the daily value (61).
What Are The Symptoms of Vitamin D Deficiency?
Signs of bone pain and muscle weakness may indicate that you are deficient in vitamin D. However, many individuals have just minor symptoms. Nonetheless, even in the absence of symptoms, insufficient vitamin D might pose health hazards.
Vitamin D deficiency may cause the following symptoms:
- Its deficiency in adults can lead to a loss of bone density, which can cause osteoporosis and fractures.
- In children, its deficiency can cause rickets which is a rare disease that causes the bones to become soft and bend.
- Severe vitamin D deficiency in adults can lead to osteomalacia, which causes bone pain, weak bones, and muscle weakness.
- The risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased
- Age-related cognitive decline in elderly individuals
- Vitamin D may have a role in the prevention and treatment of a variety of various disorders, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and multiple sclerosis.
What is the Dosage of Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is an extremely essential nutrient. It is found in fish, eggs, and fortified milk. The recommended dietary allowance is the daily quantity that should be ingested (RDA).
You can measure its intake in micrograms (mcg) or international units (IU). One microgram of vitamin D is equal to 40 IU.
The recommended daily allowances (or Daily Dosages) of Vitamin D are as under (62):
- For individuals aged 1 to 70 years: 600 IU (15 mcg)
- For individuals aged 71 years and above: 800 IU (20 mcg)
- Pregnant or lactating women: 600 IU (15 mcg).
- For infants (0 to 12 months of age): 400 IU (10mg).
Vitamin D is also synthesized in the skin as a result of sun exposure. For the majority of individuals, spending 15-30 minutes in the sun each day should be sufficient to maintain appropriate vitamin D levels.
Since vitamin D breaks down quite quickly, that causes its stores to run low, particularly in winter.
Unless under the supervision of a healthcare practitioner, most individuals should not ingest more than 4000 IU daily. You should consult a healthcare practitioner to determine the appropriate dosage for a particular ailment.
Vitamin D may be beneficial in a variety of ways. It may help lower the chance of developing certain illnesses, improve mood and symptoms of depression, and aid with weight control.
It’s difficult to get adequate vitamin D by food alone; thus, you may choose to see a doctor and think about using a vitamin D supplement.
1) Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis
2) Vitamin D and Influenza—Prevention or Therapy?
3) VITAMIN D AND BLOOD PRESSURE PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION
4) Vitamin D and Food Allergy
5) Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin D in Asthma and Allergy
6) Evidence of an Association Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Preterm Birth and Preeclampsia: A Critical Review
7) Maternal and newborn vitamin D status and its impact on food allergy development in the German LINA cohort study
8) Vitamin D status and cardiovascular outcome
9) Vitamin D’s Effect on Immune Function
10) The effect of vitamin D supplement on negative emotions: A systematic review and meta-analysis
11) Fibromyalgia Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Outcomes in Fibromyalgia Patients with Hypovitaminosis D: A Prospective Questionnaire Study
12) Effect of vitamin D supplementation along with weight loss diet on meta-inflammation and fat mass in obese subjects with vitamin D deficiency: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial
13) Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control
14) Vitamin D and its impact on oral health–an update
15) Hypervitaminosis D without toxicity
16) A review of the growing risk of vitamin D toxicity from inappropriate practice
17) Targeted 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration measurements and vitamin D 3 supplementation can have important patient and public health benefits
18) Calcium and vitamin D in human health: Hype or real?
19) A Curious Case of Hypervitaminosis D
20) How Much Vitamin D is Too Much? A Case Report and Review of the Literature
21) Vitamin D, Fact Sheet for Health Professionals
22) Vitamin D Mediated Hypercalcemia: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
23) [Vitamin D intoxication caused by drugs bought online. Sky-high daily dosage for six months resulted in severe hypercalcemia]
24) Vitamin D Toxicity–A Clinical Perspective
25) Forget the phosphorus: A case of hypervitaminosis D-induced symptomatic hypercalcemia
26) Vitamin D Mediated Hypercalcemia: Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
27) Vitamin D intoxication in two brothers: be careful with dietary supplements
28) Vitamin D and Risk for Vitamin A Intoxication in an 18-Month-Old Boy
29) Vitamin D and Acute Kidney Injury: A Two-Way Causality Relation and a Predictive, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Role of Vitamin D
30) Vitamin D and Acute Kidney Injury: A Two-Way Causality Relation and a Predictive, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Role of Vitamin D
31) Vitamin D and Kidney Diseases: A Narrative Review
32) The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status
33) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
34) An Evaluation of the Vitamin D3 Content in Fish: Is the Vitamin D Content Adequate to Satisfy the Dietary Requirement for Vitamin D?
35) Natural vitamin D content in animal products
36) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
37) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
38) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
39) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
40) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
41) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
42) Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective
43) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
44) Free-range farming: a natural alternative to produce vitamin D-enriched eggs
45) Effects of vitamin D(3) -enriched diet on egg yolk vitamin D(3) content and yolk quality
46) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
47) Mercury exposure from domestic and imported estuarine and marine fish in the U.S. seafood market
48) Mercury in canned tuna: white versus light and temporal variation
49) Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light
50) Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light
51) Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2
52) Bioavailability of vitamin D₂ from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial
53) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
54) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
55) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
56) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
57) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
58) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
59) The Interrelationships between Lactose Intolerance and the Modern Dairy Industry: Global Perspectives in Evolutional and Historical Backgrounds
60) World Allergy Organization (WAO) Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow’s Milk Allergy (DRACMA) Guidelines
61) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FoodData Central
62) How much vitamin D do I need?
Disclaimer: This article is intended for informational purposes only. Any information associated with this article should not be considered as a substitute for prescriptions suggested by local health care professionals.